Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country in south-east Europe with an estimated population of four million people. The country is a homeland of three ethnic constituent peoples: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. Other communities that live there are not given the status of being "constituent". A citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified as a Bosnian.
The country borders with Croatia in the west and Serbia and Montenegro in the east. It is virtually landlocked save for a small strip of land (about 12 mi or 20 km) on the Adriatic sea, centered around the city of Neum. The interior of the country is heavily mountainous and divided by various rivers, most of which are nonnavigable. The nation's capital is Sarajevo, which is also its largest city.
Bosnia and Herzegovina was formerly one of the six federal units constituting Yugoslavia. The republic gained its independence in the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s and, due to the Dayton Accords, is currently administered in a supervisory role by a High Representative selected by the UN Security Council. It is also decentralized and administratively divided into two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.
Bosnia itself is the chief geographic region of the modern state, and forms its historical backbone. Herzegovina is the most notable among several other territories traditionally under the Bosnian political unit, and has been officially included in the country's name since the mid-nineteenth century.
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